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UPSC Prelims 2019 Quick revision notes : Environment – I & II

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Product Description

Sample Notes :

ORIGIN OF LIFE FORMS

POLLUTION BASICS

IFoS Indian Forest Services and IAS both exam’s prelim paper is same since IFoS deals with biodiversity, forest and Environment many questions are asked in the Prelims Exam. This book is updated version with all the current event added along with traditional part.

The material consist of following Chapters :

Environment – 1

Unit-: Ecology & Ecosystem

  1. Origin of Life forms
  • Origin of Life Forms
  • Evolution of Earth
  1. Ecology & Ecosystem
  • Environment
  • What is Biosphere?
  • What is Ecology
  • Ecological level of organization
  • What is Ecosystem?
  • Components of Ecosystem
  • Ecological Succession and Ecotone

Unit-: Ecosystem Functions

  1. Ecosystem functions
  • Habitat
  • Ecological Niche
  • Food Chain
  • Food Web
  • Ecological Pyramids
  • Bioaccumulation & Biomagnification
  • Other terms associated with Ecology

Unit-: Population Ecology

  1. Population Ecology
  • Types of Species
  • Population Ecology
  • Population Growth Models
  • Methodology of Tiger Census

Unit-: Adaptation of Species & Species Interactions

  1. Adaptation & Interaction of Species
  • Adaptation
  • Homeostasis
  • Interaction between Species
  • Ecotone

Unit-: Types of Ecosystems

  1. Types of ecosystems
  • Terrestrial Ecosystem
  • Forest Ecosystem in India
  1. Aquatic ecosystem
  • Aquatic Ecosystem
  1. Biomes of the World
  • Tundra
  • Taiga
  • Grassland
  • Tropical Rainforest Biome
  • Desert Biome
  • Deciduous Forest Biome
  1. Marine Organisms
  • Plankton
  • Zooplankton
  • Sea-grass
  • Seaweeds
  1. Human Modified Ecosystems
  • Side effects of Human Activity
  • Characteristics of Intentionally Modified Ecosystems
  • Example of Cropland Ecosystem
  • Example of Dams, Reservoirs and Diversions

Unit-: Nutrient Cycling

  1. Concept of Biogeochemical
  • Concept of Bio-Geochemical Cycles
  1. Carbon Cycle
  • Steps in Carbon Cycle
  • Carbon Cycle: Long term and Short term
  • Carbon act as Climate Buffer
  • Human Impact on the Carbon Cycle
  • Effects of High Concentration of Greenhouse Gases
  1. Hydrological Cycle
  • Different Steps of the Hydrologic Cycle
  • Storage
  1. Nitrogen Cycle
  • Human Impact on the Nitrogen Cycle
  1. Oxygen Cycle
  • Other facts
  1. Sulphur Cycle
  • Human Impact on the Sulphur Cycle
  1. Phosphorus Cycle
  • Parts of the Cycle

Unit-: Biodiversity

  1. Basics of Biodiversity
  • Biodiversity
  • Types of biodiversity
  • Patterns of Biodiversity
  • Bio-geographical classification of World
  • Bio-geographical classification of India
  • Functions of biodiversity
  • Biodiversity Hotspots
  1. Threats to biodiversity
  • Causes of Biodiversity losses (‘The Evil Quartet’)
  • Invasive species
  • Effects of Loss of Bio-Diversity
  • Extinction of Species
  • IUCN Red List

Unit-: Biodiversity Conservation

  1. Biodiversity Conservation
  • Biodiversity Conservation
  • In-situ methods of conservation of biodiversity
  • Biosphere Reserves
  • Sacred Forests and Sacred Lakes
  • World Heritage Sites
  • Geo-Heritage Sites
  • Advantages of In-situ Conservation
  • Disadvantages of In-situ conservation
  1. Exsitu
  • Ex-situ Methods of Conservation of Biodiversity
  1. National Parks
  • Important National Parks
  1. Species based Conservation Programs
  • Project Tiger
  • Project Elephant
  • Project Snow Leopard
  • Vulture Conservation Project
  • Crocodile Conservation Project
  • Ganges Dolphin Project
  • Other Projects

Unit-: Estuaries, Mangroves,

Wetlands, Coral Reefs, and Forest Resources

  1. Estuaries
  • What are Estuaries?
  • Types of Estuaries
  • Importance of Estuaries
  • Threats to Estuaries
  • Major Estuaries in Indian coastal states
  • Difference between Lagoon and Estuary
  • Estuary Ecosystem: Adaptations made in Organisms
  1. Mangroves
  • What are Mangroves?
  • Importance of Mangroves
  • Mangroves under Threats
  • Legal and Regulatory Approaches for Protection
  • Community based Mangrove Regeneration
  1. Wetlands
  • What are Wetlands?
  • Types of Wetlands
  • Wetlands in India
  • Importance of Wetlands
  • Threats to Wetland Ecosystems
  • Conservation of Wetlands
  • About Ramsar Convention
  • Wetland (Conservation and Management) Rules,
  1. Coral Reefs
  • What are Coral Reefs?
  • How does it originate?
  • What does a coral reef look like?
  • Importance of Coral Reefs
  • Threats to Coral Reefs
  • Where are Coral Reefs Found?
  • Where are coral reefs found in India?
  • How to conserve of Coral Reefs?
  • What steps are being taken in India to conserve coral reefs?
  1. Forest resource
  • Definition of Forests by FSI
  • Types of Forest Cover
  • Role of Forests
  • Forest Resource of India (FSI Report )
  • Types of Forest in India
  • Deforestation
  • Strategies for Reducing Deforestation
  • Government Programs for Conservation of Forests

Environment – 2

Environment – II

Unit-: Pollution & Degradation

  1. Pollution Basics
  • Pollution
  • Sources of Pollution
  • Classification of Pollutants
  • Pollution Indicator Species
  1. Land Degradation
  • Definition of Land Degradation
  • Causes of Land Degradation
  • Impact of Land Degradation
  • Desertification
  • Sustainable Land Management
  • Soil Erosion
  • Problems due to Excessive Irrigation
  • Soil Conservation
  1. Air Pollution
  • Air Pollution
  • Causes of Air Pollution
  • Harmful Effects of Common Air Pollutants
  • Control of Air Pollution
  • Concepts related to Air Pollution
  1. Marine Pollution
  • Sources of Marine Pollution
  • Effects of Marine Pollution
  • Concept of Dead Zone
  • Concept of Ocean Acidification
  • Oil Spill
  • Trash and Other Debris in Ocean
  • Coastal Regulation Zone Notification,
  1. Mining & Pollution
  • Mining
  • Effects of Mining on Environment
  • Concept of Sustainable Mining
  • Acts to regulate the adverse effects of Mining Activities
  1. Other Pollution
  • Noise Pollution
  • Causes of Noise Pollution
  • Noise Levels
  • Effects of Noise Pollution on Human Health
  • Corrective Actions
  • Biological Pollution
  • Sources of Biological Pollution
  • Harmful Effects from Biological Contaminants
  • Corrective Actions
  • Radioactive Pollution
  • Sources of Radioactive Pollution
  • Harmful Effects of Radioactive Pollution
  • Nuclear Accidents
  • Corrective Actions
  • Thermal Pollution
  • Causes of Thermal Pollution
  • Effect of Thermal Pollution
  1. Environment-Related Diseases
  • Minamata Disease
  • Itai-Itai Disease
  • Blue Baby Syndrome
  • Pneumoconiosis Disease
  • Asbestosis
  • Silicosis
  • Emphysema
  • Sick Building Syndrome

Unit-: Water Degradation

  1. Surface & Ground Water Degradation
  • Surface Water Resource
  • Ground Water Resources
  • Sources of Water Pollution
  • Measurement of Water Pollution
  • Harmful Effects of Water Pollution
  • Other Terms Associated with Water Pollution
  • Algal Bloom
  • Eutrophication
  • Arsenic Contamination of Water
  • Mercury Pollution
  • Oxygen Stratification
  • Corrective Actions

Unit-: Waste Management

  1. Solid Waste Management
  • Solid Waste
  • Types of Solid Waste
  • What is Solid Waste Management?
  • Issues in Solid Waste Management in India
  • Waste Management Practices
  • Policy on Promotion of City Compost
  • Salient features of SWM Rules,
  1. e-waste Management
  • Pollutants and their Health Impacts
  • E-waste status in India
  • Importance of the E-Waste Management
  • Steps taken for combating mounting E-Waste
  • E-waste (Management & Handling) Rules,
  1. Biomedical Waste
  • Hazards Associated with Waste Management
  • Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules,
  1. Hazardous Waste
  • Hazardous-Waste Characteristics
  • Hazardous Waste Treatment
  • Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management & Transboundary Movement) Rules,
  1. Treatments Methods for Waste Management
  • Methods for Sewage Treatment
  1. Open Waste Burning & its impact

Unit-: Climate Change

  1. Climate change
  • What is Climate Change?
  • What is Global Warming?
  • Factors Affecting Climate Change
  • What is Greenhouse Effect?
  • Non Green House Gases and Aerosols
  • Radioactive Forcing and Global warming
  • Ecological Footprint
  • Carbon Footprint
  • Global Warming Potential (GWP)
  • Causes of Climate Change
  1. Impact of climate change & its mitigation
  • Impacts of the Climate Change
  • Climate Change Mitigation

Unit-: Climate Change Management

  1. Climate Change Summits & Conferences
  • United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm Conference)
  • United Nations Environment Programme
  • Montreal Protocol and Kigali Agreement
  • The Earth Summit:
  • Global Environment Facility (GEF)
  • Rio Declaration ()
  • Agenda ()
  • Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)
  • United Nations Convention of Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
  • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
    Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) ()
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  1. Organisations
  • International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP)
  • Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF)
  • The Partnership for Action on Green Economy (PAGE)
  • Global Alliance for Climate Smart Agriculture (GACSA)
  • Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA)
  • Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC)
  • Indian Steps
  • Other Steps
  1. Global Climate Finance Architecture
  • Strategic Climate Fund
  • Forest Investment Program
  • Pilot program for Climate Resilience
  • Scaling-up Renewalbe Energy Program for Low Income countries
  • Biocarbon fund
  • Clean Technology Fund
  • Forest Carbon Partnership Facility
  • Partnership of Market Readiness
  • Special Climate Change Fund
  • Strategic Priorty on Adaptation
  • GEF Trust Fund-Climate Change Focal Area
  • Least Deveoped Countries Fund
  • Green Climate Fund
  • Adaptation Fund‑
  • Global Climate Change Alliance
  • Global Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fund
  • MDG Achievement Fund
  • UN-REDD Programme‑
  • Adaptation for Smallholder Agriculture Program
  • Amazon Fund (Fundo Amazonia)‑
  • Congo Basin Forest Fund
  • Indonesia Climate Change Trust Fund‑

Unit-: Renewable Energy

  1. Renewable energy
  • Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
  • Tidal Energy
  • Wave Energy
  • Fuel Cell
  • Microbial Fuel Cell
  • Biofuels
  • Biogas
  • Geothermal Energy
  • Solar Energy‑
  • Wind Energy
  • Status of Renewable Energy in India
  • Energy Organisation

Unit-: Environmental Governance

  1. Environmental Institutional Bodies
  • National Bodies‑
  • International Bodies‑
  1. Environmental Legislations
  • Pollution Related Acts‑
  • Biodiversity Related Acts‑
  • Environment Related Acts‑
  1. Environmental conventions
  • Various Indices Relate To Environment
  1. Environment Schemes
  • Other Initiatives
  1. Environmental Mission in India
  • Constitutional Provisions Related to Environment
  • National Governance

Unit-: Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

  1. Environmental Impact Assessment
  • Meaning of EIA
  • Steps in EIA process
  • Strategic Environmental Assessment
  • Difference between EIA and Strategic Impact Environment
  • Environmental Components of EIA
  • Importance of EIA‑
  • Environmental Impact Assessment in India
  • Social Impact Assessment (SIA)

Unit-: Sustainable Practices

  1. Impact of Agriculture on Environment
  • Sustainable Agriculture‑
  1. Sustainable Agriculture
  • Bioremediation
  • Phytoremediation
  • Bio-Fertiliser
  • Biopesticides
  • Organic Farming
  • Vermicomposting
  • Permaculture
  • New Irrigation Technologies
  • Pest Management
  • Hi-tech Farming Methods
  • Integrated Nutrient Management (Fertilizers)]
  • System of Rice Intensification
  • Difference between Fertilizer and Manure
  • Rain Water Harvesting
  • Green Buildings and their Rating System in India
  • Eco-tourism
  • Advantages & Disadvantages of Eco-tourism
  • People in Environment
  • Ecology & Ecosystem
  • Environment
  • What is Biosphere?
  • What is Ecology
  • Ecological level of organization
  • What is Ecosystem?
  • Components of Ecosystem
  • Ecological Succession and Ecotone

Unit-: Ecosystem Functions

  1. Ecosystem functions
  • Habitat
  • Ecological Niche
  • Food Chain
  • Food Web
  • Ecological Pyramids
  • Bioaccumulation & Biomagnification
  • Other terms associated with Ecology

Unit-: Population Ecology

  1. Population Ecology
  • Types of Species
  • Population Ecology
  • Population Growth Models
  • Methodology of Tiger Census

Unit-: Adaptation of Species & Species Interactions

  1. Adaptation & Interaction of Species
  • Adaptation
  • Homeostasis
  • Interaction between Species
  • Ecotone

Unit-: Types of Ecosystems

  1. Types of ecosystems
  • Terrestrial Ecosystem
  • Forest Ecosystem in India
  1. Aquatic ecosystem
  • Aquatic Ecosystem
  1. Biomes of the World
  • Tundra
  • Taiga
  • Grassland
  • Tropical Rainforest Biome
  • Desert Biome
  • Deciduous Forest Biome
  1. Marine Organisms
  • Plankton
  • Zooplankton
  • Sea-grass
  • Seaweeds
  1. Human Modified Ecosystems
  • Side effects of Human Activity
  • Characteristics of Intentionally Modified Ecosystems
  • Example of Cropland Ecosystem
  • Example of Dams, Reservoirs and Diversions

Unit-: Nutrient Cycling

  1. Concept of Biogeochemical
  • Concept of Bio-Geochemical Cycles
  1. Carbon Cycle
  • Steps in Carbon Cycle
  • Carbon Cycle: Long term and Short term
  • Carbon act as Climate Buffer
  • Human Impact on the Carbon Cycle
  • Effects of High Concentration of Greenhouse Gases
  1. Hydrological Cycle
  • Different Steps of the Hydrologic Cycle
  • Storage
  1. Nitrogen Cycle
  • Human Impact on the Nitrogen Cycle
  1. Oxygen Cycle
  • Other facts
  1. Sulphur Cycle
  • Human Impact on the Sulphur Cycle
  1. Phosphorus Cycle
  • Parts of the Cycle

Unit-: Biodiversity

  1. Basics of Biodiversity
  • Biodiversity
  • Types of biodiversity
  • Patterns of Biodiversity
  • Bio-geographical classification of World
  • Bio-geographical classification of India
  • Functions of biodiversity
  • Biodiversity Hotspots
  1. Threats to biodiversity
  • Causes of Biodiversity losses (‘The Evil Quartet’)
  • Invasive species
  • Effects of Loss of Bio-Diversity
  • Extinction of Species
  • IUCN Red List

Unit-: Biodiversity Conservation

  1. Biodiversity Conservation
  • Biodiversity Conservation
  • In-situ methods of conservation of biodiversity
  • Biosphere Reserves
  • Sacred Forests and Sacred Lakes
  • World Heritage Sites
  • Geo-Heritage Sites
  • Advantages of In-situ Conservation
  • Disadvantages of In-situ conservation
  1. Exsitu
  • Ex-situ Methods of Conservation of Biodiversity
  1. National Parks
  • Important National Parks
  1. Species based Conservation Programs
  • Project Tiger
  • Project Elephant
  • Project Snow Leopard
  • Vulture Conservation Project
  • Crocodile Conservation Project
  • Ganges Dolphin Project
  • Other Projects

Unit-: Estuaries, Mangroves,

Wetlands, Coral Reefs, and Forest Resources

  1. Estuaries
  • What are Estuaries?
  • Types of Estuaries
  • Importance of Estuaries
  • Threats to Estuaries
  • Major Estuaries in Indian coastal states
  • Difference between Lagoon and Estuary
  • Estuary Ecosystem: Adaptations made in Organisms
  1. Mangroves
  • What are Mangroves?
  • Importance of Mangroves
  • Mangroves under Threats
  • Legal and Regulatory Approaches for Protection
  • Community based Mangrove Regeneration
  1. Wetlands
  • What are Wetlands?
  • Types of Wetlands
  • Wetlands in India
  • Importance of Wetlands
  • Threats to Wetland Ecosystems
  • Conservation of Wetlands
  • About Ramsar Convention
  • Wetland (Conservation and Management) Rules,
  1. Coral Reefs
  • What are Coral Reefs?
  • How does it originate?
  • What does a coral reef look like?
  • Importance of Coral Reefs
  • Threats to Coral Reefs
  • Where are Coral Reefs Found?
  • Where are coral reefs found in India?
  • How to conserve of Coral Reefs?
  • What steps are being taken in India to conserve coral reefs?
  1. Forest resource
  • Definition of Forests by FSI
  • Types of Forest Cover
  • Role of Forests
  • Forest Resource of India (FSI Report )
  • Types of Forest in India
  • Deforestation
  • Strategies for Reducing Deforestation
  • Government Programs for Conservation of Forests

Environment – 2

Environment – II

Unit-: Pollution & Degradation

  1. Pollution Basics
  • Pollution
  • Sources of Pollution
  • Classification of Pollutants
  • Pollution Indicator Species
  1. Land Degradation
  • Definition of Land Degradation
  • Causes of Land Degradation
  • Impact of Land Degradation
  • Desertification
  • Sustainable Land Management
  • Soil Erosion
  • Problems due to Excessive Irrigation
  • Soil Conservation
  1. Air Pollution
  • Air Pollution
  • Causes of Air Pollution
  • Harmful Effects of Common Air Pollutants
  • Control of Air Pollution
  • Concepts related to Air Pollution
  1. Marine Pollution
  • Sources of Marine Pollution
  • Effects of Marine Pollution
  • Concept of Dead Zone
  • Concept of Ocean Acidification
  • Oil Spill
  • Trash and Other Debris in Ocean
  • Coastal Regulation Zone Notification,
  1. Mining & Pollution
  • Mining
  • Effects of Mining on Environment
  • Concept of Sustainable Mining
  • Acts to regulate the adverse effects of Mining Activities
  1. Other Pollution
  • Noise Pollution
  • Causes of Noise Pollution
  • Noise Levels
  • Effects of Noise Pollution on Human Health
  • Corrective Actions
  • Biological Pollution
  • Sources of Biological Pollution
  • Harmful Effects from Biological Contaminants
  • Corrective Actions
  • Radioactive Pollution
  • Sources of Radioactive Pollution
  • Harmful Effects of Radioactive Pollution
  • Nuclear Accidents
  • Corrective Actions
  • Thermal Pollution
  • Causes of Thermal Pollution
  • Effect of Thermal Pollution
  1. Environment-Related Diseases
  • Minamata Disease
  • Itai-Itai Disease
  • Blue Baby Syndrome
  • Pneumoconiosis Disease
  • Asbestosis
  • Silicosis
  • Emphysema
  • Sick Building Syndrome

Unit-: Water Degradation

  1. Surface & Ground Water Degradation
  • Surface Water Resource
  • Ground Water Resources
  • Sources of Water Pollution
  • Measurement of Water Pollution
  • Harmful Effects of Water Pollution
  • Other Terms Associated with Water Pollution
  • Algal Bloom
  • Eutrophication
  • Arsenic Contamination of Water
  • Mercury Pollution
  • Oxygen Stratification
  • Corrective Actions

Unit-: Waste Management

  1. Solid Waste Management
  • Solid Waste
  • Types of Solid Waste
  • What is Solid Waste Management?
  • Issues in Solid Waste Management in India
  • Waste Management Practices
  • Policy on Promotion of City Compost
  • Salient features of SWM Rules,
  1. e-waste Management
  • Pollutants and their Health Impacts
  • E-waste status in India
  • Importance of the E-Waste Management
  • Steps taken for combating mounting E-Waste
  • E-waste (Management & Handling) Rules,
  1. Biomedical Waste
  • Hazards Associated with Waste Management
  • Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules,
  1. Hazardous Waste
  • Hazardous-Waste Characteristics
  • Hazardous Waste Treatment
  • Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management & Transboundary Movement) Rules,
  1. Treatments Methods for Waste Management
  • Methods for Sewage Treatment
  1. Open Waste Burning & its impact

Unit-: Climate Change

  1. Climate change
  • What is Climate Change?
  • What is Global Warming?
  • Factors Affecting Climate Change
  • What is Greenhouse Effect?
  • Non Green House Gases and Aerosols
  • Radioactive Forcing and Global warming
  • Ecological Footprint
  • Carbon Footprint
  • Global Warming Potential (GWP)
  • Causes of Climate Change
  1. Impact of climate change & its mitigation
  • Impacts of the Climate Change
  • Climate Change Mitigation

Unit-: Climate Change Management

  1. Climate Change Summits & Conferences
  • United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm Conference)
  • United Nations Environment Programme
  • Montreal Protocol and Kigali Agreement
  • The Earth Summit:
  • Global Environment Facility (GEF)
  • Rio Declaration ()
  • Agenda ()
  • Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)
  • United Nations Convention of Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
  • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
    Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) ()
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  1. Organisations
  • International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP)
  • Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF)
  • The Partnership for Action on Green Economy (PAGE)
  • Global Alliance for Climate Smart Agriculture (GACSA)
  • Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA)
  • Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC)
  • Indian Steps
  • Other Steps
  1. Global Climate Finance Architecture
  • Strategic Climate Fund
  • Forest Investment Program
  • Pilot program for Climate Resilience
  • Scaling-up Renewalbe Energy Program for Low Income countries
  • Biocarbon fund
  • Clean Technology Fund
  • Forest Carbon Partnership Facility
  • Partnership of Market Readiness
  • Special Climate Change Fund
  • Strategic Priorty on Adaptation
  • GEF Trust Fund-Climate Change Focal Area
  • Least Deveoped Countries Fund
  • Green Climate Fund
  • Adaptation Fund‑
  • Global Climate Change Alliance
  • Global Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fund
  • MDG Achievement Fund
  • UN-REDD Programme‑
  • Adaptation for Smallholder Agriculture Program
  • Amazon Fund (Fundo Amazonia)‑
  • Congo Basin Forest Fund
  • Indonesia Climate Change Trust Fund‑

Unit-: Renewable Energy

  1. Renewable energy
  • Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
  • Tidal Energy
  • Wave Energy
  • Fuel Cell
  • Microbial Fuel Cell
  • Biofuels
  • Biogas
  • Geothermal Energy
  • Solar Energy‑
  • Wind Energy
  • Status of Renewable Energy in India
  • Energy Organisation

Unit-: Environmental Governance

  1. Environmental Institutional Bodies
  • National Bodies‑
  • International Bodies‑
  1. Environmental Legislations
  • Pollution Related Acts‑
  • Biodiversity Related Acts‑
  • Environment Related Acts‑
  1. Environmental conventions
  • Various Indices Relate To Environment
  1. Environment Schemes
  • Other Initiatives
  1. Environmental Mission in India
  • Constitutional Provisions Related to Environment
  • National Governance

Unit-: Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

  1. Environmental Impact Assessment
  • Meaning of EIA
  • Steps in EIA process
  • Strategic Environmental Assessment
  • Difference between EIA and Strategic Impact Environment
  • Environmental Components of EIA
  • Importance of EIA‑
  • Environmental Impact Assessment in India
  • Social Impact Assessment (SIA)

Unit-: Sustainable Practices

  1. Impact of Agriculture on Environment
  • Sustainable Agriculture‑
  1. Sustainable Agriculture
  • Bioremediation
  • Phytoremediation
  • Bio-Fertiliser
  • Biopesticides
  • Organic Farming
  • Vermicomposting
  • Permaculture
  • New Irrigation Technologies
  • Pest Management
  • Hi-tech Farming Methods
  • Integrated Nutrient Management (Fertilizers)]
  • System of Rice Intensification
  • Difference between Fertilizer and Manure
  • Rain Water Harvesting
  • Green Buildings and their Rating System in India
  • Eco-tourism
  • Advantages & Disadvantages of Eco-tourism
  • People in Environment

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