Study Material for Polity


Product Description

Sample Notes :

Ministries and Departments

Pressure Group 

Indian Polity material have been updated, it covers basic as well as applied part of the topics in lucid language.

It covers the basic philosophy of the Constitution, issues related to Union, State and Local government, critical analysis of Constitutional, Statutory and Quasi-Judicial Bodies, comparison of basic features of the Constitution with other nations, etc.

Salient features of the content are:

  • Comprehensive Coverage of Polity of GS Mains Paper –2
  • The material is prepared keeping in mind the necessity of the Aspirants with respect to changing UPSC Pattern
  • GS Mains material covers traditional as well as contemporary dimensions of the topics mentioned in the syllabus
  • Underline sub-topics under the broader UPSC syllabus have also been covered
  • Answer writing practice questions alongwith Hints will be provided to help students in understanding the basic structure of the answer.


This booklet consists of the following Chapters:

Part 1

Chapter: 1 – Constitution of India – An Introduction

  1. Functions of Constitution
  2. Classification of Constitutions
  3. Constitutionalism
  4. Salient features of Indian Constitution
  5. The evolution of Indian Constitution

Chapter: 2 -The Preamble

  1. Interpretation of The Preamble
  2. Basic structure Doctrine
  3. What Constitutes the Basic Structure?

Chapter: 3 – Separation of Powers

  1. Montesquieu doctrine
  2. Constitutional status of separation of power in USA
  3. Constitutional status of separation of power in India

Chapter: 4Territory of the Union & creation of States

  1. Article 1 and Reorganization of States
  2. Issues with formation of Telangana

Chapter: 5Citizenship

  1. Constitutional Provisions
  2. Difference between a citizen by birth and a naturalized citizen
  3. Dual citizenship to overseas Indians

Chapter: 6Fundamental Rights

  1. Amendments to Fundamental Rights
  2. Article wise explanation of Fundamental Rights
  3. Various writs

Chapter: 7Directive Principle of State Policy

  1. Categorization of Directive Principles of State Policy
  2. Fundamental Rights vs. Directive Principles of State Policy

Chapter: 8Fundamental Duties

  1. List of duties
  2. Rationale behind the incorporation of Fundamental Duties
  3. Significance of Fundamental Duties
  4. Report of the National Commission to review the Working of Constitution, 2002
  5. Criticism of the Fundamental Duties

Chapter: 9Amendment Provisions and Debate

  1. Rigid or flexible Constitution
  2. Procedure for Constitutional Amendment in India
  3. Legislative procedure and Constitutional Amendment
  4. Parliament’s power to Amend the Constitution
  5. Appendix: Important Amendments to the Constitution

Chapter: 10Comparison of Indian Constitution

  1. Political system across the world
  2. Salient feature of the Constitutions of various democratic countries
  3. Borrowed features of Indian Constitution
  4. Feature of Indian Constitution compared with other countries
  5. Fundamental Rights, Directive principles and Fundamental Duties

Part 2

Chapter: 1President

  1. Election for the President of India
  2. Procedure for impeachment of the President
  3. Powers and functions of the President of India
  4. Analysis of position & role of President of India

Chapter: 2Vice-President

  1. Election of the Vice-President
  2. Qualifications
  3. Term of office
  4. Functions
  5. Vacancy

Chapter: 3Prime Minister

  1. Appointment
  2. Emoluments
  3. Role of the Prime Minister
  4. Position of the Prime Minister
  5. Relationship between President, Prime Minister and the Parliament
  6. Relationship between Prime Minister and his party
  7. Prime Minister and Foreign Policy

Chapter: 4 Union Council of Ministers

  1. Constitutional provisions for Cabinet of Ministers
  2. Comparison of Parliamentary and Presidential forms of government
  3. Formation of the Union Council of Ministers
  4. Principles of working
  5. Powers of the Union Council of Ministers
  6. Cabinet Committees
  7. Group of Ministers and empowered group of Ministers
  8. Attorney General of India

Chapter: 5 The Governor

  1. Appointment
  2. Removal
  3. Powers
  4. Views expressed on discretionary powers of the Governor
  5. Key debates regarding office of Governor
  6. Miscellaneous roles of the Governor
  7. Article 356 and the role of the Governor

Chapter: 6Chief Minister

  1. Constitutional provisions
  2. Powers and functions of the Chief Minister
  3. Chief Minister and the Foreign Policy

Chapter: 7State Council of Ministers

  1. Powers and functions of the Council of Ministers
  2. Relationship between the Governor and his Council of Ministers
  3. Advocate General for the State

Chapter: 8Union Territories

  1. Administration of UT’s (Article 239)
  2. Legislature and Council of Ministers in UT’s (Article 239 A)
  3. Special provisions for Delhi
  4. Position of President and administrator
  5. Constitutional breakdown
  6. Ordinance making power
  7. Power of the President to make regulations (Art 240)
  8. High court for UTs (Article 241)
  9. Acquired territories

Chapter: 9Indian Parliament

  1. Functions of Parliament
  2. Membership of Indian Parliament
  3. Vacation of seats
  4. Electoral process
  5. Sessions of Parliament
  6. Composition of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
  7. Legislative procedure in Parliament
  8. Powers, privileges and immunities of the members
  9. Financial matters in Parliament
  10. Committees of Parliament

Chapter: 10State legislature

  1. Legislative Assembly
  2. Legislative Councils
  3. Legislative procedure
  4. Comparison of the two houses of the State legislature

Chapter: 11Anti defection law

  1. About the Act
  2. Issues and recommendations

Chapter: 12The federal system

  1. Essential features of a federation
  2. Unitary features of Indian federalism
  3. Relation between the Union and the States

Chapter: 13Centre State relations – Tension Areas

  1. Role of Governor
  2. Misuse of Article 356
  3. Article 200 and 201
  4. Revenue
  5. Demand for autonomy

Chapter: 14Cooperative Federalism

  1. Meaning of Cooperative Federalism
  2. Inter-State Council (ISC)
  3. Zonal Council
  4. Niti Aayog

Chapter: 15Services under the Union and the State

  1. All India service
  2. Doctrine of pleasure
  3. Constitutional safeguards
  4. Public Service Commissions
  5. Independence of UPSC and PSC members

Chapter: 16Democratic Decentralization in India

  1. Development of PRI’s is pre-independence days
  2. Indian Constitution and the local bodies
  3. Urban local bodies
  4. Assessment of Panchayati Raj System in India

Chapter: 17Judicial System of India

  1. The Supreme Court of India
  2. The High Courts
  3. The Subordinate Courts
  4. Administrative Tribunals
  5. Judicial Accountability
  6. Judicial reforms

Part 3

Chapter: 1Political parties and Reforms

  1. Political parties in India
  2. Party reforms
  3. Problems in the working of parties
  4. Reforms in Party system in India
  5. Report on electoral reforms by law commission of India

Chapter: 2Representation of people act 1950 and 1951

  1. Salient features of the Representation of People Act, 1950
  2. Salient features of Representation of Peoples Act, 1951
  3. The Representation of the People (Amendment and Validation) Act

Chapter: 3Pressure Groups

  1. Introduction to Pressure Groups
  2. Trade Unions in India
  3. Corporate lobbying in India
  4. Peasant and Farmer Movements
  5. Women movements in India
  6. Backward class and Dalits movements as pressure groups
  7. Environment pressure groups

Part 4

Chapter: 1Ministries and Departments

  1. Structure of Ministries/departments
  2. Advantages of the separation of secretariat and executive organization
  3. Strengths and weaknesses of the existing structure
  4. Recommendations for improving the Organizational structure

Chapter: 2Constitutional bodies

  1. Election Commission
  2. Finance Commission
  3. CAG
  4. UPSC

Chapter: 3Statutory bodies

  1. RBI
  2. SEBI
  3. Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA)
  4. Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI)
  5. Competition Commission of India/(CCI)
  6. Press Council of India
  7. Pension Fund Regulatory & Development Authority

Chapter: 4Quasi Judicial bodies

  1. Human Rights Commission
  2. Central Information Commission and State Information Commission
  3. Consumer Dispute Redressed Agencies


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