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Study Material for Indian Geography

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Sample Notes :

AGRICULTURE IN INDIA

SOILS OF INDIA 

Salient Features :

  • Comprehensive Coverage of Indian Geography of GS Mains Paper I
  • The material is prepared keeping in mind the necessity of the Aspirants with respect to changing UPSC Pattern
  • GS Mains material covers traditional as well as contemporary dimensions of the topics mentioned in the syllabus
  • Underline sub-topics under the broader UPSC syllabus have also been covered
  • Answer writing practice questions alongwith Hints will be provided to help students in understanding the basic structure of the answer.

This booklet consists of the following Chapters:

Part 1

Physical Geography of India

Chapter 1: Space Relations of India with Neighbouring Countries

  • Sino-Indian Relations
    1. Sino Indian Border may be divided into three sectors
  • Indo-Pak Border Dispute
    1. Rann of Kachch dispute
    2. Sir Creek
    3. Kashmir Problem
    4. Siachen Glacier dispute
  • India Bangladesh Border

Chapter 2: Structure and Relief

  • Major Rock Systems of India
  1. Archaean Group
  2. The Purana Group
  3. The Dravidian Group
  4. The Aryan Group
  5. The Tertiary System

Chapter 3: Physiography of India

  • Introduction
  • Physical Features
  • Physiographic Regions
  1. Northern Mountains
  2. The Great Northern Plains
  3. The Peninsular Upland
  4. The Indian Coastal Plains and Islands
  5. The Indian Islands

Chapter 4: Drainage System

  • Himalayan Rivers System
  • Peninsular River System
  • A Comparative Analysis of Himalayan and Peninsular Rivers

Chapter 5: Indian Monsoon and Climatic Regions of India

  • Theories for Mechanism of Monsoon
  • Role of Tibetan Plateau (TP)
  • Theory for “Bursting” of Monsoon
  • Retreating Monsoon
  • El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effect on Monsoon
  • Indian Ocean Dipole and Monsoon
  • Rainfall Patterns in India
  • Climatic Regions of India
  1. Tropical wet (Humid) Climate Group
  2. Dry Climate Group
  3. Sub-tropical Humid Climate Group

Chapter 6: Indian Ocean

  • Physiography and Geology
  • India Submarine Features
    1. Continental Rise, Slope, and Shelf
    2. Oceanic Ridges and Fracture Zones
    3. Ocean Basins
    4. Seamounts
    5. Trenches
    6. Bottom Deposits
  • Climate in Indian Ocean Region
    1. Monsoon Zone
    2. Trade-winds Zone
    3. Subtropical and Temperate Zone
    4. Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic Zone
  • Economic Aspects of Indian Ocean
    1. Mineral Resources
    2. Biological Resources
    3. Fisheries
  • Trade and Transportation in Indian Ocean
    1. Indian Ocean: Foreign Policy Objectives of India
    2. Major Objectives
    3. Specific Foreign Policy Objectives for Key Indian Ocean States and Regions
  • Geopolitics of Indian Ocean: Why the Indian Ocean Matters?
  1. Regionalism in Indian Ocean
  2. Sea Lane Security in the Indian Ocean

Chapter 7: Soils of India

  • Soils of India and its General Characteristics
  • Soil Erosion and Conservation
  1. Soil Erosion
  2. Effects of Soil Erosion
  3. Soil Conservation

Chapter 8: Natural Vegetation in India

  • Forest Resource of India
  • Problems of Indian Forestry
  • Remedial measures

Chapter 9: Drought and Floods in India

  • Floods in India
  • Causes of Floods
  • Flood Management
  • Droughts in India
  • Drought Management
  • Drought Prone Areas Programme (DPAP)

 

Part 2

Economic Geography of India

Chapter 1: Natural Resources and its Classification

  • Definition
  • Classification of Natural Resources
  • Land Resources
  • Soil Resources
  • Forest Resources
  • Water Resources
  • Energy Resources
  • Mineral Resources

Chapter 2: Agriculture in India

  • Role of Agriculture in Indian Economy
  • Problems of Indian agriculture
  • Infrastructure and institutional factors
  • Cropping pattern and crop combination
  • Land Capability
  • The Green Revolution
  • Dry Zone Agriculture
  • Livestock Resources
  • Agro-Climate Regions

Chapter 3: Industry

  • Evolution of Industries
  • Locational factors of various Industries
    1. Textile Industry
    2. Challenges Faced by Textile Industry In India:
      1. Cotton Industry
      2. Silk Industry
      3. Woolen Textile Industry
      4. Readymade Garment
      5. Handloom Industry
    3. Jute Industry
    4. Iron and Steel Industry
    5. Aluminum Industry
    6. Fertilizer Industry
    7. Paper Industry
    8. Chemical Industries
    9. Petro Chemicals Industries
    10. Automobile Industry
    11. Cottage Industry
  • Industrial Regions
  • New Industrial Policy
  • New Manufacturing Policy
  • Special Economic Zone (SEZ)
  • Multinational Corporations

Chapter 4: Transport, Communication and Trade

  • Roadways
  • Urban Transport
  • Railways
  • Water Transport
  • Pipeline transport
  • Air Transport
  • Export Processing Zones in India
  • Trade
  • Indian Space Programme

Chapter 5: Geographical Indication (GI)

  • What is Geographical Indication
  • Significance of GI Tag
  • India GI Tags
  • State wise Compilation of Geographical Indications

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